Celebrity drug addiction


Drug addiction is one of the sins committed by most of the people in the society. Drug addiction ranges from adult to old people, low class to ethnic people. Drugs are either consumed illegally or prescribed medications. Day by day the number of drug addicted people increase there by increasing the chances for death rate. Continue reading

De-Addiction Identifies Addicts And Deals With Treating Them Completely


One of the important aspects of drug abuse is the frequency of drug use. Every person who tests positive for the drugs of abuse or alcohol in their body are really not addicted to drugs. There are a lot of possibilities that the person is only a social drinker or has used drugs only therapeutically. In such cases, the drug test would say it as positive. The main difference between a normal use of the drug and its abuse is its frequency of use. Continue reading

Drug Testing Is Important To Identify Drug Abuse


In today’s world, drug abuse and addiction is one of the serious problems that need to be taken care of. Drug abuse means the regular usage of illegal or prohibited drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroine, etc. which makes the individuals get addicted to it. Although there are many forums throughout the world which makes propaganda about the ill effects of abuse, the numbers of the drug addicts have continued to grow.

Drug abuse among teen is becoming increasingly popular.

Now-a-days, the usage of drugs has started even at school levels. A statistics for drug abuse among teenager show that about 10% of the 8th graders use marijuana and nearly 30% of 12th graders have used marijuana; these drugs have potential effects of causing disrupts in the brain development of the children. The usage of drugs at a work place can decrease their performance level and also harm the co-workers’ safety. For this reason, most of the organizations perform drug test on their current employees and also as a pre-employment procedure.

Drug testing is considered as an important screening procedure and is done to protect the health of the individuals, to ensure work safety, and to increase the productivity at workplace. Many oppose drug testing as they are afraid of losing their employment on getting a positive result in drug testing per drug abuse article.

On the other hand, it is also considered as an ideal tool for checking the individual’s compliance with the drug abuse help and rehabilitation treatments. Drug addiction not only affects the drug user but also their families, co-workers, and the public. So, it is a good thing to undergo drug testing.

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Drug Test – Prescription Drug Abuse And Addiction


Drug test is a test done for checking the presence of certain drugs in the urine, saliva, sweat, or hair either by therapeutic drug intake or prescription drug abuse and addiction or by intentional drug use. The samples of urine, saliva, sweat or hair is examined to know the use of drugs by the individuals currently and also to see if there has been any previous usage of drugs. A simple way to check the current drug use is a blood or breath test. To determine the previous use of drugs, urine test or hair test will be more appropriate.

How it works: A sample is collected and it is sealed properly to ensure that it is not tampered in the transit. The labs usually do not accept any samples which are tampered. The traces of various illegal drugs or the metabolites left behind by them are examined in a drug test. The sample so collected is first made testable as per the medical requirements. There are 2 phases of drug testing in sports or for any other reason. The first one is immunoassay test which is also known as screening test and the second one is confirmation test. Those samples that report positive in the immunoassay test are alone put through the confirmation test as they are very expensive. False positive drug test result might also be subject to immunoassay.

Other samples which are reported negative are not subjected to confirmation test. Sometimes, the samples may show false positive in the screening test. In these cases, the confirmation test will prove it to be negative.

False positive drug test conditions: These may be associated with intake of certain foods and medications. For example, intake of drugs containing ibuprofen will show a positive result for marijuana. Another example is poppy seeds and medications containing codeine will give a positive result for morphine.

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Hair Samples Are Analyzed Chemically In Hair Alcohol Testing

Hair samples are analyzed chemically to determine the usage of alcohol. Even after exposure to air, water, soil, dust and toxic environment, the hair samples can clearly determine the alcohol usage. This establishes and verifies persistent alcohol abusers. Hair alcohol test is mostly used for this purpose in the hair drug screen process.

When there is excess consumption of alcohol, the level of alcohol in the blood stream increases. Some markers which are called as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE’S) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) are produced in the blood stream due to alcohol consumption.

These markers are absorbed by the hair for their growth therefore they are detected in hair drug tests. The people have other drugs consumed, but the hair testing procedure looks only for direct products of ethanol products. Main part of alcohol is absorbed as water and carbon dioxide.

SO the concentrations of these fatty acid ethyl esters which include, ethyl palmitate, ethyloleate, ethyl myristate and ethyl stearate are used as the indicators of the alcohol consumption and can be found in hair drug screen test.

Amount of alcohol found in hair are measured in nanograms where one nanogram is equal to one billionth of gram. But due to the improvisation in the modern technology, such small amounts can also be detected in hair drug test.

If a hair segment which was analyzed has an EtG value greater than 50ng, the person is considered to be an alcohol abuser. Human hair averagely grows at a rate of 1-cm per month approximately. It is because of the relatively stable binding of EtG into the hair shaft. So it is possible to detect the presence of EtG in hair accurately, even after a long period. Even if all other drug tests fail the hair testing process is going to help with identifying the abused drug accurately, not alone with alcohol.

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Drug Testing In The United States Is Mandatory At All Levels

The United States of America has always precautionary measures in the health care system. They use these measures for prospective of the public and also of the economy of the country. The drug testing in the United States are considered as very important. In U.S., drug possession, distribution and drugs sale are considered to be a crime.

So, different drug testing methods like dot 12 panel drug test, federal employee drug test, state drug test, and state employee drug test became mandatory in keeping up with the requisites of hiring the right kind of employees at all levels.

There two types of drug testing. The first one was through the normal legal system, which gives right to the legal authorities to test a person who is under suspicion of driving a vehicle under the influence of a drug.

In 1981, when a plane crashed on to the carrier deck of the USS Nimitz, which killed number of personnel’s, drug testing was instituted. The drug testing results enlisted the persons and officers who were using large substances of psychoactive drug. After this incident, intensive drug testing and regulation program was instituted by the Secretary of the Navy.

This was adopted by other service departments and branches. Drug-free- concept was introduced throughout the country. As a result, it became a rule that every employee of any organization should undergo a drug test, and workplace drug test is important in order to get the employment. It was started with safety sensitive executive level and civil service federal employees.

Later, even all the private organization started drug testing, as it was one of the best ways to protect the business. Drug testing is also done in the new recruits so that the company may not experience any problem with drug addicts and alcoholics.

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Random Drug Testing Is Also Getting To Be Common In Schools

This type of drug testing is done randomly, whenever some is suspected of using drugs in the workplace. This mostly held in prisons, drug treatment organization, by police, businesses and even in schools. If a person does rash driving, the police officials may suspect for drug abuse and can do random drug testing.

Random Drug Testing in high school is becoming common in the protocol of drug testing in schools as student drug tests.

The main aim of this testing to keep their employees under control and preventing them from the usage of drug at least at the workplace. But sometimes, people may feel like they are insulted by the random drug test and they feel like they lost their privacy. It’s like parents checking on their children on whatever they do.

Most of the companies keep their employees posted that they may conduct a random drug testing at any time any day. It would a part of terms and conditions of the employment. Some cases when there is an accident, and the employee involved in the accident may be suspected of drug consumption during the accident, then the drug testing method is used to assess the general effects of drug abuse in the accident.

So the random drug testing is done which helps to decide the organization to sustain or to terminate the concerned employee. Managers of the company are mostly trained on the signs and symptoms of a drug abuser. So the manager can easily identify the drug addicts among his employee and can conduct a random drug testing.

Most of the youths use drugs. So random drug testing is done in schools to ensure that the students are safe and healthy and they prevent the usage of drugs. But there are some ethical issues like; a student who may use easily detectable drugs can switch over to more harmful drugs to avoid the detection and punishment. There are also issues that the entrustment between the student and the teacher would vanish.

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Tobacco Testing

Tobacco test is used to identify the existence of cotinine, which is indicative of tobacco consumption, cotinine relates to positive cigarette smoking.  Notably, cotinine is a metabolite compound found in tobacco.

There are several occasions where constant passive smoking returns positive blood nicotine test. Usually, a smoking test relates to testing out the level of cotinine, which is a metabolic end product of nicotine. The existence of cotinine is clearly indicative of the donor being a smoker or a constant passive smoker.

As well it is non-specific to tobacco smoke being engrossed from other distinctive sources like traffic fumes or domestic heaters. Cyanide, one more biomarker of tobacco is excreted in the urine as thiocyanate, but this mix is as well non-specific, as well being absorbed from a range of food sources.

Nicotine will be indicated as positive for anyone who is using tobacco. Nicotine would look to be the perfect biomarker, but similar to CO it has a small half-life. Though, it splits down into a number of metabolites, which stays in the body for a number of days.

The best recognized nicotine metabolite is cotinine. This can be calculated with a variety of classy laboratory tools and is regarded as the ‘Gold standard’ for identifying tobacco smoke exposure.

Clinical chemistry tobacco testing has developed much in current years. One of the most significant developments is Point-of-Care testing. This generally engages fast assay technology, which is used as a guide stone for clinical tests in detecting the presence of nicotine. This has the benefit of fast treatment, less return visits, and fewer management costs.

A tobacco urine test kit can be a useful tool for somebody that is working towards stopping their smoking habits. A few people are with a false view that cigarette filters will stop the discovery of the similar smoking tests, but it is far from the real fact where most of the smoking tests are fairly sophisticated and are well planned to identify lowest levels of nicotine.

Cotinine is a metabolite (by product) of nicotine as it is subject to biological metabolism by the human body.  It is a marker, which indicates that nicotine has been breathed in or if not inhaled into the body.

Testing for the presence of cotinine is done as a normal test to decide if a person is a tobacco consumer. Cotinine will be available and established in urine from 2 to 4 days after tobacco consumption. By testing a urine sample, much similar to a pregnancy test, the presence of cotinine can be verified.

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Urine Cup, Specimen Cups

There is an opportunity of adulterating the specimen of urine sample. As a urine sample in a urine cup is generally procured in privacy, it is quite a possibility for the drug consumer to give a sample from hidden specimen cups taken, where the sample was taken while they were not consuming drugs, or they can even provide a sample obtained from somebody else.

Companies that apply hair fiber drug testing can be reassured to recognize that this is not really possible with hair testing. There is generally no requirement for privacy while a hair sample is taken.  The hair can be gathered by somebody else like a nurse or technician from the drug testing company. This is the reason for why the hair follicle drug tests for pre-employment or random drug testing tend to show a much better benefit over the customary methods of screening.

Abstaining or adulterating the sample cannot hammer or out do the results from hair tests. It simply isn’t potential. Hair Follicle Testing is an extensively used type of drug screening. Any drug that has been in your blood stream tends to be absorbed by the hair follicles in your scalp. As your hair grows up out of these follicles, the hair strands as well accept up signs of these drugs.

The lab examines the root and streak of a strand of hair for any drug which remains there in, but there is something which can have the subjects put in to a fit while attempting to get exact drug testing results from hair fiber samples, long back abuses can also be detecting with such tests.

Second hand marijuana smoke and vapor from heroin or cocaine smoking can go through the hair fiber. The laboratory test can have complexity making a difference among hair contaminated by second hand smoke or hair from a real drug consumer. So the hair fiber from somebody who do not consume drugs themselves, but does connect with other drug consumers, could provide a fake positive result in rare cases too.

Some companies who are dealing and manufacturing hair care products are capitalizing on the design and several companies are even claiming they can flush the hair off chemicals which can be untrue.

A few companies are advertising for lots of hair detoxification products that aid to pass the drug test. On the other hand, the detoxification can just take away the drug from the scalped skin, but not the drug that has been set down in the root of the hair follicle. So, there is yet much expectation for the hair follicle drug test!

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Swab Drug Testing, Smoking Test

Several employers, clinicians, prison officials, corporate officers, and parents locate customary urine-dip drug tests to be fairly necessary; however, it interferes with privacy norms and they feel saliva tests are betting in terms of where they do not interfere with privacy.

If you would desire a substitute and a valuable method to screen clients, rehabilitate patients, possible employees, teenagers, or others and think about investing the same in saliva drug tests and they can be found here in this site.  There are several products which offer enough information to detect drug abuse.

Saliva based tests such as Swab drug testing are already firm at work in thousands of hospitals, police stations, drug testing places, courts, and high schools throughout the country to discover blood alcohol levels.

Even though oral saliva tests are not yet FDA permitted, they have won high praise and honor from well-valued industry screeners, and the company is glad to give proof as to the effectiveness of these tests upon request.

A smoking test is turning into be an extensively essential process to check children who develop smoking habits. Tobacco urine test employs the fundamental antigen and antibody reactions similar to any other immunoassays for drugs.

Tobacco urine test is fairly low-cost and the results can be got in fewer than 5 minutes time, the results of tobacco urine test kits is equivalent to any laboratory beginnings. The benefit of such home based tobacco urine test lies with being able to preserve absolute privacy.

Smoking is the most significant reason of early deaths and ill health in the globe. In spite of continued efforts its occurrence is just declining gradually and this decrease appears to be restricted to the higher socio-economic groups.

Identifying medical proof about the injurious effects of smoking and raising social disgust has been apt to have the smokers in the later part feel far guilty and regret their needs.  This has the consequence of smokers’ under-reporting their cigarette use or refusing to admit to their smoke habits.

For several years, self-reported smoking routine has been known as an untrustworthy source of information for medical study and in relation to the treatment of smoking-related diseases, this has amplified the use of biochemical tests to confirm self-reported smoking and to count on tobacco chewing.

There are a number of methods to calculate smoking practice. Tobacco smoke holds over 4,000 chemicals, over 40 of which are recognized carcinogens. Carbon monoxide (CO) is engrossed from burning tobacco and it makes carboxyhaemoglobin, and CO to be excreted in blow out breath. This can be calculated with hand-held CO screens. These give instant information to the patient and healthcare experts about their smoking habits. But expired-air CO, as of its short half-life, just screens short-term smoking. Therefore a swab testing is most appropriate.

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